Inverse vaccine shows potential to stop autoimmune diseases

“A new type of vaccine developed by researchers at the University of Chicago’s Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering (PME) has shown in the lab setting that it can completely reverse autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes— all without shutting down the rest of the immune system. A typical vaccine teaches the human immune system to recognize a virus or bacteria as an enemy that should be attacked. The new “inverse vaccine” does just the opposite: it removes the immune system’s memory of one molecule. While such immune memory erasure would be unwanted for infectious diseases, it can stop autoimmune reactions like those seen in multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis, in which the immune system attacks a person’s healthy tissues.”—”‘Inverse vaccine’ shows potential to treat multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. In a new study, Prof. Jeffrey Hubbell and fellow researchers describe a new ‘inverse vaccine’ that in a lab setting can stop autoimmune reactions which attack a person’s healthy tissues, as seen in diseases multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis.”

See “Synthetically glycosylated antigens for the antigen-specific suppression of established immune responses“—”Inducing antigen-specific tolerance during an established immune response typically requires non-specific immunosuppressive signalling molecules. Hence, standard treatments for autoimmunity trigger global immunosuppression. Here we show that established antigen-specific responses in effector T cells and memory T cells can be suppressed by a polymer glycosylated with N-acetylgalactosamine (pGal) and conjugated to the antigen via a self-immolative linker that allows for the dissociation of the antigen on endocytosis and its presentation in the immunoregulatory environment. We show that pGal–antigen therapy induces antigen-specific tolerance in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (with programmed cell-death-1 and the co-inhibitory ligand CD276 driving the tolerogenic responses), as well as the suppression of antigen-specific responses to vaccination against a DNA-based simian immunodeficiency virus in non-human primates. Our findings show that pGal–antigen therapy invokes mechanisms of immune tolerance to resolve antigen-specific inflammatory T-cell responses and suggest that the therapy may be applicable across autoimmune diseases.”

Hermetic Library Omnium Inverse Vaccine Shows Potential to Stop Autoimmune Diseases 16sep2023