Author Archives: John Griogair Bell

The Elements of Ritual

Catherine Noble reviews The Elements of Ritual: Air, Fire, Water & Earth in the Wiccan Circle by Deborah Lipp in the Bkwyrm archive.

In a market of spellbooks, Wicca 101 guides, and witchy-coolness, the appearance of Lipp’s book is a startling breath of fresh air. From start to finish, Elements of Ritual walks the reader through every step of a Wiccan ritual. It is not, however, telling us what words we have to recite or what gestures are required. Instead, it is an in- depth guide to the meaning of each step. Lipp reminds us that whether we are writing our own rituals or repeating something taught, the gestures mean very little on their own, becoming truly energized only once we understand them.

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Not a clichéd horned jinn, you understand, but a daunting, invisible entity that defied the laws of physics: it could slip in and out of time, could swap its senses, hear out of its nostrils, smell with its eyes. It could even fly like the tales of yore said.

Usman T Malik, The Pauper Prince and the Eucalyptus Jinn


Ben Trafford reviews Ecstasies: Deciphering The Witches’ Sabbath by Carlo Ginzburg in the Bkwyrm archive.

The debate has raged in the occult community for the last forty years or so, and longer in the anthropological community: were the witches in Europe merely the victims of Christian hysteria, or were they the secret keepers of preChristian beliefs? Margaret Murray’s work on this topic has been largely debunked, as has Robert Graves. The Gardnerian history is still a hot topic, and of course, anyone who claims to have maintained some hereditary tradition is usually scoffed at, rightly. But Ginzburg’s work lets us look at the whole question in a new light. Like most good scholars, he’s meticulously unearthed evidence to show that the polarized views are, as usual, wrong.

Ginzburg maintains, and provides powerful evidence, to say that there were remnants of preChristian practices. He does agree that many of those who suffered under the witch trials were wrongly accused Christian folk, and he doesn’t support the idea of a knowing, secret priesthood who maintained unaltered preChristian belief systems. What he posits is far more interesting, and viable. He puts forth that the remnants of the pagan faiths were maintained in an evolving form by the peasantry, and grew to suit their needs. Like the Irish Catholic who still leaves milk out for the wee folk, these people believed themselves to be Christian, but practiced some rituals that certainly wouldn’t have been condoned in a church!

A brilliant piece of work, and well worth reading. The translation from the original Italian is quite good, too. I’ve read both, and heartily recommend either.

A final note: Ginzburg’s focus is almost exclusively continental Europe. He doesn’t touch on the British Isles at all.

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“Look up there,” he said, pointing an unsteady finger at a gap in the clouds exposing the universe, a lone far frosty star. “Infinity. There must be something in all that to fill us.”

Ramsey Campbell, Demons by Daylight

Some things could go to pot, but not his health, he thought. Then why don’t you stop pouring alcohol into yourself? he thought. Why don’t you shut the hell up? he thought.

Richard Matheson, I Am Legend